1520: Explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his fleet reach Cape Virgenes and become the first Europeans to navigate the Pacific Ocean.

1555: The English parliament refuses to recognize Philip of Spain as king.

1772: Birth of poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Devon.

1789: The National Assembly declares martial law in France to prevent uprisings.

1805: Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats the combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson is killed during the battle.

1854: Florence Nightingale is sent to the Crimean War with a staff of 38 nurses.

1858: Premiere in Paris of the operetta “Orphée aux Enfers” by Jacques Offenbach.

1895: The Republic of Formosa (later Taiwan) collapses under invading Japanese forces.

1899: The British army fights the Boers at the Battle of Elandslaagte in Natal during the Second Boer War.

1914: The Battle of Warsaw ends in German defeat.

1917: American troops enter the front line of the First World War at Sommervillier. On the same day, jazz trumpet player and bebop creator, Dizzy (John Birks) Gillespie was born in South Carolina.

1937: Franco’s troops occupy Gijon during the Spanish Civil War.

1938: Japanese troops occupy Canton.

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1948: The UN rejects a Russian proposal to destroy atomic weapons.

1950: Chinese forces occupy Tibet.

1952: Kenya African Union Chairman Jomo Kenyatta is arrested following the declaration of a state of emergency in the British colony.

1954: Indonesian troops land in New Guinea.

1958: Buddy Holly’s last recording session at Pythian Temple Studios, New York. Recorded songs include It’s raining in my heart and It doesn’t matter anymore.

1959: The Guggenheim Museum, designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright, opens in New York.

1960: Launch of the first British nuclear submarine HMS Dreadnought.

1964: Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia sets a world record time of 2:12:11.2 to win gold in the Tokyo Olympics marathon.

1965: Elvis Presley’s bassist Bill Black dies at the age of 39, four months after surgery to remove a brain tumour. On the same day, the Beatles decided to redo the song Norwegian Wood, completing the recording in just three takes.

1966: A coal slag dump engulfs a school in the Welsh village of Aberfan, killing 144 people, including 116 children.

1967: Tens of thousands of anti-Vietnam War protesters march on the Pentagon, besieging military headquarters for two days.

1969: Major General Mohamed Siad Barre becomes President of Somalia after a bloodless coup. On the same day, Willy Brandt was elected Chancellor of West Germany. Additionally, author Jack Kerouac dies at the age of 47.

1970: Bernadette Devlin is released from prison after serving four months of her six-month sentence for riotous behavior in Northern Ireland.

1975: Armed police surround a house near Dublin where kidnapped businessman Tiede Herrema is being held captive.

1976: Novelist Saul Bellow wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.

1978: Bernie Rhodes, the Clash’s sack manager, said the band and record company “had trouble dealing with him”. Melody Maker reporter Caroline Coon takes her place. On the same day, Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich disappeared in a Cessna 182 over Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with a UFO.

1979: Greta Weitz wins the New York Women’s Marathon. The same day, the Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs, Moshe Dayan, resigns.

1980: Mikhail Gorbachev is elected member of the Soviet Politburo.

1982: Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness make history by becoming the first members of Sinn Fein to be elected to the Ulster Assembly.

1984: Ferrari driver Niki Lauda becomes Formula One World Drivers’ Champion for the third time when he finishes second in the season-ending Portuguese Grand Prix at Estoril. On the same day, director François Truffaut died of brain cancer at the age of 52.

1986: American writer Edward Tracy is kidnapped in Beirut.

1988: Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos are charged with racketeering in the Philippines.

1990: Ayrton Senna crashes his McLaren during the Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka but wins his second Formula 1 drivers’ world championship.

Singles Chart:

  1. A little time – The beautiful south
  2. Show Me Heaven – Maria McKee
  3. Unchained Melody – The Righteous Brothers
  4. The Birthday Waltz, Part One – Status Quo
  5. Kinky Afro – Happy Mondays
  6. Blue velvet – Bobby Vinton
  7. I’m your baby tonight – Whitney Houston
  8. Breathtaking – Berlin
  9. Megamix – Technotronic
  10. I thought of you – London Beat
1990: Led Zeppelin – Remasters

Ranking of albums:

  1. The Rhythm of the Saints – Paul Simon
  2. Rockin’ All Over The Years – Status Quo
  3. In concert – José Carreras/Placido Domingo/Luciano Pavarotti
  4. Some Friendly – The Quacks
  5. Reflection – Shadows
  6. Soul Provider – Michael Bolton
  7. Listen Without Prejudice Volume 1 – George Michael
  8. Rebreather – ZZ Top
  9. Bona Drag–Morrissey
  10. Remasters – Led Zeppelin

1991: American hostage Jesse Turner is released from captivity in Beirut after five years.

1992: George Michael sues Sony Records in a dispute over his contract. The case, which he lost, lasted two years.

1995: Shannon Hoon, singer of Blind Melon, dies of a drug overdose at the age of 28.

2006: Sandy West, drummer for girl group The Runaways, dies of cancer at the age of 47.

2007: Ferrari driver Kimi Raikkonen wins the season-ending Brazilian Grand Prix to win the Formula One Drivers’ World Championship.

2011: Musician and arranger Edmundo Ross dies aged 100.

2013: Canada grants honorary Canadian citizenship to women’s rights and education activist Malala Yousafzai.

2014: South African Paralympian Oscar Pistorius is sentenced to five years in prison for killing his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp.

2017: The Spanish government suspends Catalonia’s autonomy in the face of a worsening political crisis over the region’s independence campaign.

2019: Thailand’s King Vajiralongkorn strips his royal wife Sineenat Wongvajirapakdi of her titles for “misconduct and disloyalty to the monarch” two months after her appointment.

2020: The FBI says Iran and Russia have information on US voters and are trying to influence the outcome of US elections. On the same day, legendary drummer Viola Smith died at the age of 107.

2021: Actor Alec Baldwin shoots cinematographer Halyna Hutchins dead and wounds director Joel Souza with a prop gun in rehearsal on a film set in New Mexico.

BIRTHDAYS: Geoffrey Boycott, cricketer, 82; Manfred Mann (Michael Lubowitz), keyboards, 82; Steve Cropper, guitarist/composer, 81; Judge Judy (Judith Sheindlin) 80; Tariq Ali, writer, 79; Tetsu Yamauchi, bassist (Free/The Faces) 75; John “Rabbit” Bundrick, keyboards, 74; Benjamin Netanyahu, Israeli politician, 73; Charlotte Caffey, guitarist/songwriter (The Go-Gos) 69; Eric Faulkner, guitarist (Bay City Rollers) 69; Baron (Peter) Mandelson, former politician, 69; Julian Cope, singer-songwriter, 65; Steve Lukather, guitarist (Toto) 65 years old; Poet Attila The Stockbroker (John Baine), 65; David Campese, Australian rugby union legend, 60; Paul Ince, footballer, 55; Tony Mortimer, songwriter/singer (East 17), 52; Ronnie Irani, cricketer, 51; Andrew Scott, actor, 46; Kim Kardashian West, reality TV star, 42; Nemanja Vidić, Serbian footballer, 41; Daniel Podence, footballer, 27 years old.